Fallacies are mistakes in arguments, or arguments that do not use sound logic. They are a common occurance in every day life (and a favorite tactic of some politicians…), but they make for a weak discussion.

Below we have listed a few of the most common fallacies, with examples of each.

Appeal to Authority

This fallacy is made when a statement is made that gives it credit based on the source. It does not deal with the argument itself but the authority that said it.

Appeal to Ignorance

This fallacy deals with the recipient being ignorant of the argument, instead of focusing on the argument itself. The fact that the argument can’t be disproven is reason enough to believe in the argument’s credibility.

Appeal to Popular Opinion

This is when someone uses the fact that many people believe an statement so it must be true.

Association Fallacy

This occurs when someone links a belief with guilt by referring or connecting a belief to someone or something else.

Attacking the Person

This is a pretty straightforward fallacy that deals with a person attacking the person that made the statement instead of the actual statement itself.

Begging The Question

This type of fallacy occurs when someone implies something based on ending their statement with a question.

“If Mark didn’t steal my money, who did?”

Circular Argument

This is when an argument is self referential and attempts to use that to prove itself.

False Dilemma/Dichotomy

This is when someone presents and argument and implies there are only two options available.

Slippery Slope

Slippery slope fallacy believes that there is one minor thing will eventually lead to a major event in the future.

Correlation Implies Causation

This is when two unrelated things happen and then the conclusion is that one event caused the other. Also known as Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc.

Non Sequitur

This fallacy occurs when someone reaches a conclusion that doesn’t follow the other proposed statements.